Thursday, April 16, 2020

Three colours: Red

This is the first of three essays on colours that were to be included in the catalogue for an exhibition at the Musé d'Orsay in Paris this year, which has been cancelled. So I'm putting them here for your delectation. Each essay focuses on the pigments developed and used through time for one of the primary colours.

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One hundred thousand years ago, the last Ice Age covered much of northern Europe with glaciers several kilometres thick. Small groups of Homo sapiens coexisted with other, now extinct human ancestors: Neanderthals and Denisovans. Life was nasty, brutish and short. Yet in a cave in what is today South Africa, humans found the time and inclination to mix red paint.

Their tools have been found in Blombos Cave on the Southern Cape coast: grindstones and hammer-stones for crushing the pigment, and abalone shells for mixing the powder with animal fat and urine to make a paint that would be used to decorate bodies, animal skins and perhaps cave walls. The red colour was made from ochre, a natural, soft, iron-rich mineral chemically similar to rust.


A piece of engraved ochre from Blombos cave in South Africa.

The evolution of complex ways of thinking and socializing seems only to have happened fifty thousand years later – and yet even at the dawn of human culture it seems that the urge to adorn our surroundings and ourselves with colour was deeply felt. It was done in the colours of nature: black charcoal, white chalk and ground bone, and the brownish-red of ochre. It’s no wonder that a word for “red” seems to be one of the earliest colour words to appear in languages across the globe, after those for black and white. The cave paintings made 15-35 millennia ago in Chauvet, Lascaux and Altamira attest to the genuine artistry that early humans achieved.

Red ochre is still on the artist’s palette today: a “dirty” red, some might say, but an honest, humble one, and cheap too. It’s iron that gives the mineral this hue. Like many metals when chemically combined with other elements, it absorbs light within a characteristic band of the visible spectrum, soaking up the blues and greens but reflecting the reds. That red is purer in the colour of blood, where an iron atom sits at the heart of the protein haemoglobin and ferries oxygen around our bodies. The bloody hue is reflected in the technical name for ochre-like minerals: haematite, literally “blood-stone”, which is iron oxide.

During the Industrial Revolution, chemists perfected a method for making iron oxide artificially, so that the red colour could be more precisely controlled. It was an offshoot of the manufacture of sulphuric acid, an important ingredient for textile bleaching. This red substance was sold to artists as “Mars red”, an echo of the old alchemical term for iron compounds. The planet Mars was long associated with redness. It has that hue even to the naked eye, for its surface is covered with iron oxide minerals.

But the classic red pigments of the artists don’t rely on iron minerals, the hue of which is not the glorious red of a sunset, or indeed of blood, but of the earth. For many centuries, the primary red of the palette came from the compounds of two other metals: lead and mercury.

Lead is something of a chameleon metal. By combining the raw metal with various other substances – vinegar, carbon dioxide, air – alchemists and artisans knew since the time of the ancient Egyptians how to obtain white, yellow and red materials. Red lead was the finest of these colours, made by heating “white lead” in air. It was known too in ancient China from at least the fifth century BCE. Roman and Greek painters used it, although the Roman writer Pliny in the first century AD was wary of artists who used bright colours like this too lavishly – the sober artist, he insisted, deployed a more muted palette, with reds of ochre.

To Pliny, any bright red was called minium, and red lead was a slightly second-rate version: minium secundarium. But by the Middle Ages minium had become more or less synonymous with red lead, which was used extensively in manuscript illumination. That art came to be described by the Latin verb miniare, “to paint in minium”, from which we get the term “miniature”: nothing to do, then, with the Latin minimus, “smallest”. The association today with a diminutive scale comes simply from the constraints of fitting a miniature on the page.


A miniature painted in red lead from c.1300.

Pliny’s best minium was a different red pigment, called cinnabar. This was a natural mineral: chemically, mercury sulphide. It was mined in the ancient world, partly for use as a red colorant but also because the liquid metal mercury could easily be extracted from it by heating. Mercury was thought to have almost miraculous properties: ancient Chinese alchemists in particular used it in medicines.

By the Middle Ages, alchemists and craftspeople knew how to make mercury sulphide artificially by combining liquid mercury and yellow, pungent sulphur (available naturally in mineral form) in a sealed vessel and heating them. This process, which was described in a craftsman’s manual of around 1122 by the German monk Theophilus, can give a finer quality of red pigment. It was a procedure of great interest to alchemists too, as the Arabic scholars of the eighth and ninth centuries had claimed that mercury and sulphur were the basic ingredients of all metals – so that combining them might be a route to making gold. Theophilus, however, had no such esoteric arts in mind; he just wanted a good red paint.

“Artificial cinnabar” became known by the name vermilion. The etymology is curious, and shows the confusing and treacherous flux of colour terms in an age when the hue of a substance seemed more significant than vague, pre-scientific notions of what its chemical identity was. It stems from the Latin vermiculum (“little worm”), since a bright red was once extracted from a species of crushed insect: not a paint pigment but a translucent dye of scarlet colour, arising from an organic (carbon-based) substance that the insects produce. Such dyes were also known as kermes, the etymological root of “crimson”. Because the insects that made it could be found on Mediterranean trees as clusters encrusted in a resin and resembling berries, the dyes might also be called granum, meaning grain. From this comes the term “ingrained”, implying a cloth dyed in grain: the dye was tenacious and did not wash out easily.


Vermilion is used abundantly in Masaccio’s Saints Jerome and John the Baptist (c.1428-9), in the National Gallery, London.

Vermilion is by no means the only close link between the reds of textile dyes and the reds of paint pigments. The former are translucent and dissolve in water, and are generally organic substances extracted from animals or plants – such as cochineal, an extract of New World beetles that became popular with cloth dyers in the sixteenth century. But paint pigments must be opaque and long-lasting, whereas dyes tended to fade as they were washed out or as sunlight broke down the delicate organic molecules.

Red dyes were associated with majesty, opulence, status and importance: they were the colours used for cardinals’ robes in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Painters needed fine reds to render on board and canvas these dignitaries whose portraits they were increasingly commissioned to paint. Red lead and vermilion served well enough in the Middle Ages, but the increased demand for verisimilitude in the Renaissance highlighted the difference between the orange hue of the pigments and the crimson of the dyes.

One way to capture the quasi-purple magnificence of those dyes was to fix the colorant molecules onto solid, colourless particles that could be dried and mixed with oils like a regular pigment. This process involved some challenging chemistry, but even the ancient Egyptians knew how to do it. The basic idea is to precipitate a fine-grained white solid within a solution of the dye: the dye sticks to the particles, which dry to make a dark red powder. In the Middle Ages this process used the mineral alum, which can be converted to insoluble white aluminium hydroxide. The pigment made this way was called a lake, after the word (lac or lack) for a red resin exuded by insects indigenous to India and southeast Asia.

One of the best red lakes of the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance was made from the dye extracted from the root of the madder plant. As lake manufacture was perfected, artists such as Titan and Tintoretto began to use these pigments mixed with oils, giving a slightly translucent paint that they would apply in many layers for a deep wine-red tint or would wash over a blue to make purple. In this as in much else we can see the constant exchange in materials and knowhow between dyers and pigment-makers.


There is abundant, rich red lake in Titian’s Portrait of the Vendramin Family (1543-7).

A popular source of a luxurious, blood-red lakes in the late Middle Ages was the dye called cochineal, harvested in eastern Europe from a species of beetle that encrusted the perennial knawel plant with a resinous crust. The colour comes from organic compounds made by the insects themselves, which are killed, dried and crushed. According to one estimate, about 70,000 insects were needed to make one pound of this so-called carmine lake. The plant was harvested around midsummer, and if the crop failed, the price of carmine soared. After the discovery of the New World, however, cochineal for dyes and pigments gained a more reliable (if scarcely cheaper) source as an import from the Spanish colonies in the Americas.

The existence of strong red pigments was vital to the evolution of the palette. According to the art historian Daniel Thompson, the invention of a method to make synthetic vermilion transformed the nature of medieval art:
“No other scientific invention has had so great and lasting an effect upon painting practice as the invention of this colour… Given abundant vermilion, the standard of intensity in the painter’s palette automatically rises. Equally brilliant blues and greens and yellows were required to go with it… If the Middle Ages had not had this brilliant red, they could hardly have developed the standards of colouring which they upheld; and there would have been less use for the inventions of the other brilliant colours which came on the scene in and after the twelfth century.” (D. V. Thompson, The Materials and Techniques of Medieval Painting, p.106. Dover, New York, 1956.)

Aside from the creation of red lakes, rather little about the painter’s reds changed from the Middle Ages until modern times. The Impressionists in the late nineteenth century made avid use of the new yellows, oranges, greens, purples and blues that advances in chemistry had given them, yet their reds were not really any different to those of Raphael and Titian.

It wasn’t until the early twentieth century that a vibrant and reliable new red entered the repertoire. The discovery of the metal cadmium in 1817 immediately produced new yellow and orange pigments, but a deep red was made from this element only around the 1890s. The yellow and orange are both cadmium sulphide; but to get a red, some of the sulphur in this compound is replaced by the related element selenium. It wasn’t until 1910 that cadmium red became widely available as a commercial colour, and its production became more economical when the chemicals company Bayer modified the method in 1919.

Cadmium red is a rich, warm colour – it is arguably the painter’s favourite red, except for the price. That was certainly true for Henri Matisse, for who red held a special valence - as his interiors in La Desserte (aka The Red Room, 1908), Red Studio (1911) and Large Red Interior (1948) attest. Of the second of these, art critic John Russell said “It is a crucial moment in the history of painting: colour is on top, and making the most of it.”


Matisse’s The Red Studio (1911) is painted in cadmium red.

Colour is on top. That was that way in went in the twentieth century, from the strident chromatic statements of the Fauves (Matisse at their head) to the stark primaries of Ellsworth Kelly and the hypnotic maroon colour fields of Mark Rothko (whose experiments with new reds made from synthetic and fugitive dyes did not end well). Colour went from being the artist’s medium to being the subject. In that shifting of the agenda, red led the way.

43 comments:

Brett said...

Nice job, your article added depth to my experience. Cancelled. Ugh. I know the feeling. If you ever get to Ventura, California stop in at Art City and say hello.

Srinivasa Ranganathan said...

It is a pleasure to read your in depth article on colours.

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Hello viewers around the Globe, I was despondent because i had a very small penis, about 2.5 inches soft and 4 inches hard not nice enough to satisfy a woman, i have been in so many relationship, but cut off because of my situation, i have used so many product which doctors for me, but none could offer me the help i searched for. i saw some few comments on the INTERNET about this specialist called Dr,OLU and decided to contact him on his email: Drolusolutinthome@gmail.com) so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal pills for Penis Enlargement, Within 3 week of it, i began to feel the enlargement was surprised when she said that she is satisfied with my sex and i have got a large penis. Am so happy, thanks to Dr OLU I also learn that Dr OLU also help with Breast Enlargement Hips and Bums Enlargement etc.. If you are in any situation with a little Penis, weak ejaculation, small breast_hips_bums do get to Dr OLU now for help on his email ( Drolusolutionhome@gmail.com ) or add him on whatsapp line +2348140654426 

Lilian Wale said...

There are some natural remedies that can be used in the prevention and eliminate diabetes totally. However, the single most important aspect of a diabetes control plan is adopting a wholesome lifestyle Inner Peace, Nutritious and Healthy Diet, and Regular Physical Exercise. A state of inner peace and self-contentment is essential to enjoying a good physical health and overall well-being. The inner peace and self contentment is a just a state of mind.People with diabetes diseases often use complementary and alternative medicine. I diagnosed diabetes in 2010. Was at work feeling unusually tired and sleepy. I borrowed a cyclometer from a co-worker and tested at 760. Went immediately to my doctor and he gave me prescriptions like: Insulin ,Sulfonamides,Thiazolidinediones but Could not get the cure rather to reduce the pain but bring back the pain again. i found a woman testimony name Comfort online how Dr Akhigbe cure her HIV  and I also contacted the doctor and after I took his medication as instructed, I am now completely free from diabetes by doctor Akhigbe herbal medicine.So diabetes patients reading this testimony to contact his email     drrealakhigbe@gmail.com   or his Number   +2348142454860   He also use his herbal herbs to diseases like:SPIDER BITE, SCHIZOPHRENIA, LUPUS,EXTERNAL INFECTION, COMMON COLD, JOINT PAIN, EPILEPSY,STROKE,TUBERCULOSIS ,STOMACH DISEASE. ECZEMA, GOUT, PROGENITOR, EATING DISORDER, LOWER RESPIRATORY INFECTION,  DIABETICS,HERPES,HIV/AIDS, ;ALS,  CANCER , MENINGITIS,HEPATITIS A AND B,ASTHMA, HEART DISEASE, CHRONIC DISEASE. NAUSEA VOMITING OR DIARRHEA,KIDNEY DISEASE. HEARING  LOSSDr Akhigbe is a good man and he heal anybody that comes to him. here is email    drrealakhigbe@gmail.com    and his Number +2349010754824

Alandre said...

I'm someone who has lived a life seemingly in the background, I must say this final indignity I have suffered almost too much to endure. You see, I have been sickly and weak since the day I was born and doomed to go through all my life a weakling. I seemed to have always suffered from one illness or another and could never play with the other children as I so desperately wanted to. Mother always made such a big fuss over me, also, making the situation worse as the other boys teased me mercilessly after they saw it. I was browsing  the internet searching on how i could be transformed into a powerful when i came across the email of a man named Lord Mark. who was a VAMPIRE so I told him that I has always dreamed of becoming a  VAMPIRES, All i did was just to follow the procedure that i was been told, and i bet you that procedure I took change my entire life to something i ever desire, freedom, sickness free, pains free, fame, influence, connections and even more that i can. Thanks to Lord Mark. Do you want a life full of interesting things? Do you want to have power and influence over others? To be charming and desirable? To have wealth, health, and longevity? contact the vampires creed today via email: Vampirelord7878@gmail.com

Sharon Wayne said...

I want to thank Dr Emu a very powerful spell caster who help me to bring my husband back to me, few month ago i have a serious problem with my husband, to the extend that he left the house, and he started dating another woman and he stayed with the woman, i tried all i can to bring him back, but all my effort was useless until the day my friend came to my house and i told her every thing that had happened between me and my husband, then she told me of a powerful spell caster who help her when she was in the same problem I then contact Dr Emu and told him every thing and he told me not to worry my self again that my husband will come back to me after he has cast a spell on him, i thought it was a joke, after he had finish casting the spell, he told me that he had just finish casting the spell, to my greatest surprise within 48 hours, my husband really came back begging me to forgive him, if you need his help you can contact him with via email: Emutemple@gmail.com or add him up on his whatsapp +2347012841542 is willing to help any body that need his help. 

GET THE BEST PENIS ENLARGEMENT PRODUCT said...

HOW DR AZIBA HELPED ME ENLARGE MY PENIS SIZE FROM 3.5 INCHES TO 11INCHES LONG AND 8.0 GROWTH WhatsAPP DR [ +2348100368288 ]
I got married 2 years ago and it just seemed that there was no excitement in my sex life. My dysfunction to perform to the best of my abilities in bed made it harder for my wife and me to have a good time during sex. And i was having the feelings that she may decide to get a divorce one day. I knew something had to be done in order to improve my sex life and to save my marriage because my marriage was already falling apart, so when i was on my Facebook page i came across a story of how Dr Aziba helped him enlarged his penis to 8ins better.so i Immediately copied the Email address of the Dr and explained to him my problem,he gave me some simply instruction which i must follow and i did easily and my friends Today, i am the happiest man on Earth, All Thanks to Dr Aziba for saving my marriage and making me a real man today.i asked him about some purpular diseases like HERPES,HIV AIDS,HEPATITES,DIABETIS, CANCERS, WART, Get Ex back ,etc....... which are affecting most people he said there is no disease without a cure , he has it all...You can as well reach the Dr below for help on your problem, for he has the solution to all...
Email:[ PRIESTAZIBASOLUTIONCENTER@GMAIL COM ]
WhatsAPP DR [ +2348100368288 ]

Laurie Hughes said...

I really appreciate  DR AKHIGBE,my name is LAURIE HUGHES . I will never stop testifying DR AKHIGBE. Happiness is all I see now I never thought that I will be cured from HIV virus again. DR AKHIGBE did it for me. I have been suffering from a deadly disease (HIV) for the past 2 years now, I have spent a lot of money going from one place to another, from church to church, hospitals have been my home every day. Constant checks up have been my hobby not until this fateful day,  I saw a testimony on how DR AKHIGBE helped someone in curing his HIV disease in internet quickly I copied his email which is drrealakhigbe@gmail.com just to give him a test I spoke to him, he asked me to do some certain things which I did, he told me that he is going to provide the herbal cure to me, which he did, then he asked me to go for medical checkup after some days, after using the herbal cure and i did, behold I was free from the deadly disease,till now no HIV in me again he only asked me to post the testimony through the whole world, faithfully am doing it now,all the testimony of DR AKHIGBE is true  please BROTHER and SISTER, MOTHER and FATHER he is great, I owe him in return. if you are having a similar problem just email him on drrealakhigbe@gmail.com or you can whats App his mobile number on +2348142454860  He can also cure these diseases like HIV and AIDS HERPES,DIABETICS,CANCER, HEPATITIS B,CHRONIC DISEASES, ASTHMA, HEART DISEASES, EXTERNAL INFECTION, EPILEPSY, STROKE, INSOMNIA,  MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS,GOUT,  NAUSEA,VOMITING OR DIARRHEA, LIVER CIRRHOSIS, KAWASAKI DISEASES, LUPUS,ECZEMA,BACK PAIN,JOINT PAIN. .ETC .please email drrealakhigbe@gmail.com    or whats APP him  ..+2349010754824.  He is a real good and honest man.  
website...  https:drrealakhigbe.weebly.com

Unknown said...

Contact DR DADA for Your Penis Enlargement pills which is capable of turning  your sex life from a laughing stock into a paradise. i had my penis grown from 4 inches to 10 inches and my sex life is wonderful contact DR DADA today to get your penis issue fixed he also cures sickness with his herbal medication my Aunt was cured of herpes as a results of DR DADA Herbal medication he cures lots of sickness, HIV/AID, HSV 1&2, CANCER, ASTHMA, HPV, COPD and lots more get in touch with him on today and get what bothering YOU soled mail (drdadaspellhome7@gmail.com) OR WHATAPP +22367565345  

GET THE BEST PENIS ENLARGEMENT PRODUCT said...

Hi guys I'm Franklin , I was disorganized because i had a very small penis, about 2.0 inches soft and 4 inches hard not nice enough to satisfy my woman, i have been in so many relationship, but cut off because of my situation, i have used so many product which doctors prescribe for me, but none could offer me the help i searched for. i saw some few comments on the internet about this herbal doctor called Dr Aziba and decided to contact him on whatsApp with his mobile no (+2348100368288) i saw on the internet, I decided to give his herbal product a try. he gave me some comforting words with his herbal product for Penis Enlargement, Within 1 week of it, i began to feel the enlargement of my penis, " and now it just 3 weeks of using his products my penis is about 9 inches longer, and i had to settle out with my Ex girlfriend, i was surprised when she said that she is satisfied with my sex and i have got a large penis. Am so happy, thanks to Dr Aziba I also learn that Dr Aziba also help with Breast Enlargement Hips and Bums Enlargement, Low Sperm Count, If you are in any situation with a little Penis, weak ejaculation, small breast_hips_bums do get to Dr Aziba contact him now on his mobile no, or add him up on whatsApp (+2348100368288) Email ( Priestazibasolutioncenter@gmail. com )

GET THE BEST PENIS ENLARGEMENT PRODUCT said...

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GET THE BEST PENIS ENLARGEMENT PRODUCT said...


This is very simple method about penis Enlargement Herbal medicine is 100% guaranteed for Penis Enlargement and Good Erection, The main reason why lots of men are finding it difficult to Enlarge penis and last long during xxx is because they so believe in medical report and drugs made of chemicals which cause damages to the body system. so I'm recommending Y'all fellow men facing this mess to contact Dr Aziba WhatsApp via +2348100368288 or Email : priestazibasolutioncenter@gmail.com for Natural Herbal Penis Enlargement Product

DEVIN TIMZ said...

This is very helpful with no side effect...Before I began Doctor Aziba natural penis enlargement Product I measured 4 Inches in erect length, and 3 inches in erect girth. While flaccid I measured 3.4 Inches long. I began using his product, slightly skeptical I admit, and just 2 weeks later I was very happy with my progress. I measured 7.5 inches erect length and 6.5 inches erect girth, and 5.5 inches flaccid length. I was actually quite shocked at the huge gains I’d had, and continued using the product regularly, sticking to the usage schedule rigorously. After about 2-3 weeks I am 8.2 Inches in erect length and 8.1 Inches in erect girth. I am also 7.2 inches long while flaccid. This has had a huge impact on my life, not only has my sex life improved greatly, I feel much more confident and proud. Dr Aziba Natural Penis Enlargement works! and you can as well reach out to him on any of these cure for ALS, HPV, HSV, HIV, HERPES, Virginal Infection, Heart Burn, Cancer etc... You can Get in Contact with his via Email: (Priestazibasolutioncenter@gmail.com ) or WhatsApp him via contact +2348100368288 His the solution you've been searching !

GET THE BEST PENIS ENLARGEMENT PRODUCT said...

HAVING A Long and Thicker PENIS gives you a 100% guarantee when meeting your girlfriend or wife and as well makes her respect you more as the real man for being able to satisfy her sexual needs. waste no more time, get in contact with Doctor Aziba for his herbal product to help you get the actual size deserved for your woman and make her happy like every other women out there, Doctor Aziba product is 100% Vegans and guarantee with no side effects Contact Doctor Aziba via whatsApp: +2348100368288 or mail him: PRIESTAZIBASOLUTIONCENTER@GMAIL.COM





HAVING A Long and Thicker PENIS gives you a 100% guarantee when meeting your girlfriend or wife and as well makes her respect you more as the real man for being able to satisfy her sexual needs. waste no more time, get in contact with Doctor Aziba for his herbal product to help you get the actual size deserved for your woman and make her happy like every other women out there, Doctor Aziba product is 100% Vegans and guarantee with no side effects Contact Doctor Aziba via whatsApp: +2348100368288 or mail him: PRIESTAZIBASOLUTIONCENTER@GMAIL.COM

Natural Herbal Medicine said...

HOW DR AZIBA HELPED ME ENLARGE MY PENIS SIZE FROM 3.5 INCHES TO 11INCHES LONG AND 8.0 GROWTH WhatsAPP DR [ +2348100368288 ]
I got married 2 years ago and it just seemed that there was no excitement in my sex life. My dysfunction to perform to the best of my abilities in bed made it harder for my wife and me to have a good time during sex. And i was having the feelings that she may decide to get a divorce one day. I knew something had to be done in order to improve my sex life and to save my marriage because my marriage was already falling apart, so when i was on my Facebook page i came across a story of how Dr Aziba helped him enlarged his penis to 8ins better.so i Immediately copied the Email address of the Dr and explained to him my problem, he gave me some simply instruction which i must follow and i did easily and my friends Today, i am the happiest man on Earth, All Thanks to Dr Aziba for saving my marriage and making me a real man today. I asked him about some popular diseases like HERPES,HIV AIDS,HEPATITES,DIABETIS, CANCERS, WART, HPV etc.. which are affecting most people he said there is no disease without a cure, he has it all...You can as well reach the Dr below for help on your problem, for he has the solution to all...
Email:[ PRIESTAZIBASOLUTIONCENTER@GMAIL COM ]
WhatsAPP DR [ +2348100368288 ]




Natural Herbal Medicine said...

HOW DR AZIBA HELPED ME ENLARGE MY PENIS SIZE FROM 3.5 INCHES TO 11INCHES LONG AND 8.0 GROWTH WhatsAPP DR [ +2348100368288 ]
I got married 2 years ago and it just seemed that there was no excitement in my sex life. My dysfunction to perform to the best of my abilities in bed made it harder for my wife and me to have a good time during sex. And i was having the feelings that she may decide to get a divorce one day. I knew something had to be done in order to improve my sex life and to save my marriage because my marriage was already falling apart, so when i was on my Facebook page i came across a story of how Dr Aziba helped him enlarged his penis to 8ins better.so i Immediately copied the Email address of the Dr and explained to him my problem, he gave me some simply instruction which i must follow and i did easily and my friends Today, i am the happiest man on Earth, All Thanks to Dr Aziba for saving my marriage and making me a real man today. I asked him about some popular diseases like HERPES,HIV AIDS,HEPATITES,DIABETIS, CANCERS, WART, HPV etc.. which are affecting most people he said there is no disease without a cure, he has it all...You can as well reach the Dr below for help on your problem, for he has the solution to all...
Email:[ PRIESTAZIBASOLUTIONCENTER@GMAIL COM ]
WhatsAPP DR [ +2348100368288 ]

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Rose Mile said...

Getting your lover or your ex back has been made more easy by this powerful spell caster called Dr Odion. I am Rose by name and i am from canada, the only reason why i am on this site is to thank this powerful spell caster called DR. Odion and you can improve your relationship success by contacting him through these details (wisdomspiritualtemple@gmail.com Or call +2348136482342) This powerful spell caster did me a huge favor by helping me get my lover back to me within the speed of light and since then my relationship has been perfect.

any problem of yours.He is specialized in the following:

(1)Spell for protection from danger
(2)Spell for magic
(3)Spell for same sex love
(4)Spell for healing
(5)Spell for invisibility
(6)Spell for riches and fame
(7)Spell to get a good job
(8)Spell for strong love and relationship
(9)Spell to bring your ex back
(10)speII for Lottery
This man has great powers and is incredibly generous.You can contact him on
(wisdomspiritualtemple@gmail.com)

Darlene Treger said...

HERBAL DR EMU WHO PREPARE HERBAL MEDICINE TO CURE ALL KINDS OF DISEASES INCLUDING HERPES DISEASE.   
 I have been battling this Herpes disease for almost 3 years now....I tried all possible means to get cure from my Herpes Disease but all to be in vain until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbal Dr Emu who prepare herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases including Herpes Disease, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try...when i contact Dr Emu via his email (emutemple@gmail.com)  write him and reply me explain how the process work so after ordering for the medicine I got it within 3/4 working days through DHL Delivery and I took it according to the way Dr Emu instructed, I was so happy after 2 week I took the medicine there was very big change in my health when I was done with the process I go for test, I found out I am negative...Herpes patients should also get in touch with this herbalist Dr Emu to get rid of these Herpes Virus forever his whatsapp number +2347012841542.

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Mignon Wright said...

DR OYAGU herbal medicine is a good remedy for herpes simplex virus cure. My name is MIGNON WRIGHT , am from USA,I am here to give my testimony about DR OYAGU who helped me in my life, i want to inform the public how i was cured from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) by DR OYAGU, i visited different hospital but they gave me list of drugs like Familiar, Zovirax, and Valtrex which is very expensive to treat the symptoms and never cured me. I was browsing through the Internet searching for remedy on HERPES and i saw comment of people talking about how DR OYAGU cured them, when i contacted him he gave me hope and send a Herbal medicine to me that i took and it seriously worked for me, am a free person now without any problem, my HERPES result came out negative, I pray to God to never let me and my family forget you in our life, am now cured permanently, you can also get your self cured my friends if you really need this doctor help, you can reach him on his website ;https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome Email: oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or via whatsapp +2348101755322

Michael Patriciaa said...

This year 2020 has been so blissful to me for God has given me a reason to live happily again after been heart broken for 6 years when my husband neglected me and went back to he's mistress. I suffered and went through all types of emotional tortures for i couldn't get any help to get my man back not until i was refereed to Dr. Iyaya by my co-worker who gave me her full assurance about him that he can be of help to me. I got in touch with Dr. Iyaya and i hearken to his words and followed the instructions given to me by him. Could you believe that my husband got back home within 48hours as said by him and today, my marriage is restored & i'm so thankful, appreciative & grateful to God for using Dr. Iyaya to get my man back after 9 months of broken marriage. Is there anyone out there who needs to get back to he's or her lover back or needs any help of any kind? Then, i suggest that you get in touch with Dr. Iyaya now through his Email: doctoriyaya@gmail.com Call WhatsApp +2347032756397 for more information, visit his website you may found your solution there www.https://dr-iyaya-herbal-remedy.webnode.com God bless you sir.

nancy said...

i was cured of herpes simplex virus 1 & 2 by a great herbal doctor called Dr sayo with the use of pure natural roots and herbs. it is still like a dream to me. There is no word suitable enough to qualify your significant in my life dear doctor. he can also cure any kind of diseases/virus and illness You can contact him via email: (sayoherbalhealer@gmail.com) or whatsapp him +2349012175679 you can also visit his FB page: https://www.facebook.com/Sayo-Herbal-Healer-100145798345000/    and take a good look on his website: http://sayoherbalhealinghome.com/     My little way to appreciate you doctor is to advertise your great work and that is what i am doing now  

Brandon Jayson said...

DR AZIBA HERBAL MEDICINE is the natural male support formula designed to take your sexual performance to another level. This is the formula designed to combat against all sexual complications and erectile dysfunction. The supplement promotes healthy production of testosterone hormone in body that increases sexual desires and endurance, while helping you to perform harder and longer on bed. It reduces the fatigue levels and sexual decline caused due to aging and optimizes the sexual drives and arousal levels for peak performance on bed.
DR AZIBA HERBS even focuses on increasing your circulation of blood across penile chambers. This increment in the circulation widens the blood vessels for increased holding capacity and this treats the root cause of ED in males. It reduces your fatigue levels and allows you to last longer with intense orgasms and better sexual drives. It also maximizes your sexual climax by allowing you to hold your ejaculation longer when performing on bed. Get in contact with DR AZIBA via Email: Priestazibasolutioncenter@gmail.com And WhatsApp him directly on +2348100368288.








DR AZIBA HERBAL MEDICINE is the natural male support formula designed to take your sexual performance to another level. This is the formula designed to combat against all sexual complications and erectile dysfunction. The supplement promotes healthy production of testosterone hormone in body that increases sexual desires and endurance, while helping you to perform harder and longer on bed. It reduces the fatigue levels and sexual decline caused due to aging and optimizes the sexual drives and arousal levels for peak performance on bed.
DR AZIBA HERBS even focuses on increasing your circulation of blood across penile chambers. This increment in the circulation widens the blood vessels for increased holding capacity and this treats the root cause of ED in males. It reduces your fatigue levels and allows you to last longer with intense orgasms and better sexual drives. It also maximizes your sexual climax by allowing you to hold your ejaculation longer when performing on bed. Get in contact with DR AZIBA via Email: Priestazibasolutioncenter@gmail.com And WhatsApp him directly on +2348100368288.