Saturday, February 29, 2020

How you hear the words of songs

This is my latest column for the Italian science magazine Sapere.

________________________________________________________________



The distinctions between song and spoken word have always been fuzzy. There’s musicality of rhythm and rhyme in poetry, and some researchers think the origins of song merge with those of verse in oral traditions for passing on stories and knowledge. Many musical stylings lie on the continuum between melodic singing and spoken recitation, ranging from the quasi-melodic recitative of traditional opera, the almost pitchless Sprechstimme technique introduced by Schoenberg and Berg in operas such as Pierrot Lunaire and Lulu, the Beat poetics of Tom Waits or the rapid-fire wordplay of rap.

It’s also well established that the cognitive processing of music and language share resources in the brain. For example, the same distinctive pattern of brain activity appears, in the language-processing region called Broca’s area, when we hear both a violation of linguistic syntax and a violation of the ‘normal’ rules of chord progressions. Yet the brain appears to use quite different parts of the brain to decode speech and sung melody: to a large extent, it categorizes them as different kinds of auditory input, and analyses them in different ways.

To a first approximation, speech is mostly processed in the left hemisphere of the brain, while melody is sent to the right hemisphere. Philippe Albouy and colleagues, working in the lab of leading music cognitive scientist Robert Zatorre at McGill University in Montreal, have now figured out how that processing differs in detail: what the brain seems to be looking for in each case. They asked a professional composer to generate ten new melodies, to each of which they set ten sentences, creating a total of 100 “songs” that a professional singer then recorded unaccompanied.

They played these recordings to 49 participants while altering the sound to degrade its information. In some cases they scrambled details of timing, so the words sounded slurred or indistinct. In others they filtered the sound to alter the acoustic frequencies (spectra), giving the songs a robotic, “metallic” quality. Participants were played an untreated song followed by the pair of altered versions, and were asked to focus either on the words or the melody.

For the tunes where timing details were altered, the melodies remained audible but not the words. With spectral manipulation, the reverse was true: people could make out the words but not the tune. So it seems that the speech-processing brain looks for temporal cues to decode the sound, whereas for melody-processing it’s the spectral content that matters more. Albouy and colleagues confirmed, using functional MRI for brain imaging, that the changes caused different activity in the auditory cortex on the left and right of the brain respectively.

Importantly, this doesn’t mean that the brain sends the signal one way for song and the other for speech. Both sides are working together in both cases, for otherwise we couldn't make out the lyrics of songs or the prosody – the meaningful rise and fall in pitch – of speech. The musical brain is integrated, but delegates roles according to need.

5 comments:

Claudia Anastasya said...

ituQQ Situs POKER DominoQQ ONLINE | AGEN JUDI ONLINE | AGEN BANDAR TERPERCAYA | Agen BandarQ ONLINE | Sakong Online | Judi DominoQQ | BandarPoker | AduQ Online | Capsa Susun | Bandar66 Online | Poker Texas Indonesia | Perang Baccarat

Agen Judi Online Terpercaya dan Terbaik di Indonesia
Menyediakan berbagai macam permainan Judi Kartu Online Terlengkap
1 ID untuk 9 Game Permainan yang disediakan oleh Situs ituQQ

* Domino99
* AduQ
* Poker
* Capsa Susun
* BandarQ
* Bandar 66
* Bandar Poker
* Sakong
* Perang Baccarat

=> Bonus Cashback 0.5% (dibagikan 2x setiap Minggunya)
=> Bonus Refferal 20% (dibagikan setiap Minggunya seumur hidup)
=> Customer Service 24 Jam Nonstop
=> Minimal Depo & WD - 50.000 Ribu & 100.000 Ribu
=> Support Bank Lokal Indonesia (BCA, BNI, BRI, Mandiri, Danamon, Permata Bank, Etc)
=> Menerima Deposit Via : (OVO, Go-Jek, XL, TELKOMSEL, Axis, Etc)
=> 100 % FAIR PLAY (tidak ada BOT / ADMIN dalam permainan)

* Pusat Bantuan ituQQ

LINE : ituQQ
WECHAT : ituQQQ
WHATSAPP : +855-9589-7137

* ituBola - Judi Bola - Judi Casino - Judi Poker - Judi Domino QQ
* ituCasino - Judi Casino - Judi Bola - Judi Poker - Judi Domino QQ

Vmate said...

VMATE

ghitas said...

شركة تنظيف بالخبر
شركة تنظيف منازل بالخبر
شركة تنظيف فلل بالخبر
شركة تنظيف مجالس بالخبر
شركة تنظيف خزانات بالخبر
شركة مكافحة حشرات بالخبر
شركة مكافحة نمل ابيض بالخبر

sahabatwin88.blogspot.com said...

PERMAINAN ONLINE TERBESAR DI INDONESIA

Website paling ternama dan paling terpercaya di Asia ^^
Sistem pelayanan 24 Jam Non-Stop bersama dengan CS Berpengalaman respon tercepat :)
Memiliki 9 Jenis game yang sangat digemari oleh seluruh peminat poker / domino

- Adu Q
- Bandar Q
- Bandar Sakong
- Bandar Poker
- Poker
- Domino 99
- Capsa Susun
- Bandar66 / Adu Balak
- Perang Baccarat ( GAME TERBARU )

Permainan Judi online yang menggunakan uang asli dan mendapatkan uang asli ^^
* Minimal Deposit : 20.000
* Minimal Withdraw : 20.000
* Deposit dan Withdraw 24 jam Non stop ( Kecuali Bank offline / gangguan )
* Bonus REFFERAL 15 % Seumur hidup tanpa syarat
* Bonus ROLLINGAN 0.3 % Dibagikan 5 hari 1 kali
* Proses Deposit & Withdraw PALING CEPAT
* Sistem keamanan Terbaru & Terjamin
* Poker Online Terpercaya
* Live chat yang Responsive
* Support lebih banyak bank LOKAL Yaitu : Bca, Bri, Bni, Mandiri, Danamon, Cimb niaga , Permata Bank dan Ocbc Nisp
* Tersedia deposit via pulsa telkomsel dan XL serta OVO juga


Contact Us

Website SahabatQQ
WA 1 : +85515769793
WA 2 : +855972076840
LINE : SAHABATQQ
FACEBOOK : SahabatQQ Reborn
TWITTER : SahabatQQ
YM : cs2_sahabatqq@yahoo.com
Kami Siap Melayani anda 24 jam Nonstop

Daftar SahabatQQ
#sahabatQQ #winsahabatQQ #winsahabat #rajakartu99 #windaftar

المتوكل على الله said...



شركة رش مبيدات بالرياض
افضل شركة رش دفان بالرياض
شركة مكافحة حشرات بالرياض
شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالرياض
شركة مكافحة الحمام بالرياض